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Tannenbaum C, Paquette A, Hilmer S, Holroyd-Leduc J, Carnahan R; Drugs & Aging 29 (8), 639-58 (Aug 2012)A systematic review of amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment induced by anticholinergic, antihistamine, GABAergic and opioid drugsCarnahan R; Drugs & Aging 29 (8), 639-58 (Aug 2012
Background: Mild cognitive deficits are experienced by 18% of community-dwelling older adults, many of whom do not progress to dementia. The effect of commonly used medication on subtle impairments in cognitive function may be under-recognized. Objective: The aim of the review was to examine the evidence attributing amnestic or non-amnestic cognitive impairment to the use of medication with anticholinergic, antihistamine, GABAergic or opioid effects. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of adults without underlying central nervous system disorders who underwent detailed neuropsychological testing prior to and after oral administration of drugs affecting cholinergic, histaminergic, GABAergic or opioid receptor pathways. Seventy-eight studies were identified, reporting 162 trials testing medication from the four targeted drug classes. Two investigators independently appraised study quality and extracted relevant data on the occurrence of amnestic, non-amnestic or combined cognitive deficits induced by each drug class. Only trials using validated neuropsychological tests were included. Quality of the evidence for each drug class was assessed based on consistency of results across trials and the presence of a dose-response gradient. Results: In studies of short-, intermediate- and long-acting benzodiazepine drugs (n = 68 trials), these drugs consistently induced both amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairments, with evidence of a dose-response relationship. H(1)-antihistamine agents (n = 12) and tricyclic antidepressants (n = 15) induced non-amnestic deficits in attention and information processing. Non-benzodiazepine derivatives (n = 29) also produced combined deficits, but less consistently than benzodiazepine drugs. The evidence was inconclusive for the type of cognitive impairment induced by different bladder relaxant antimuscarinics (n = 9) as well as for narcotic agents (n = 5) and antipsychotics (n = 5). Among healthy volunteers>60 years of age, low doses of commonly used medications such as lorazepam 0.5 mg, oxybutynin immediate release 5 mg and oxycodone 10 mg produced combined deficits. Conclusion: Non-amnestic mild cognitive deficits are consistently induced by first-generation antihistamines and tricyclic antidepressants, while benzodiazepines provoke combined amnestic and non-amnestic impairments. Risk-benefit considerations should be discussed with patients in order to enable an informed choice about drug discontinuation or substitution to potentially reverse cognitive adverse effects.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a bedside test for executive function in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with INPH and 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were enrolled in this study. We developed the counting-backward test for evaluating executive function in patients with INPH. Two indices that are considered to be reflective of the attention deficits and response suppression underlying executive dysfunction in INPH were calculated: the first-error score and the reverse-effect index. Performance on both the counting-backward test and standard neuropsychological tests for executive function was assessed in INPH and AD patients. RESULTS: The first-error score, reverse-effect index and the scores from the standard neuropsychological tests for executive function were significantly lower for individuals in the INPH group than in the AD group. The two indices for the counting-backward test in the INPH group were strongly correlated with the total scores for Frontal Assessment Battery and Phonemic Verbal Fluency. The first-error score was also significantly correlated with the error rate of the Stroop colour-word test and the score of the go/no-go test. In addition, we found that the first-error score highly distinguished patients with INPH from those with AD using these tests. CONCLUSION: The counting-backward test is useful for evaluating executive dysfunction in INPH and for differentiating between INPH and AD patients. In particular, the first-error score may reflect deficits in the response suppression related to executive dysfunction in INPH.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the baseline prevalence of cognitive impairment in older men treated with ADT and to assess changes in cognitive performance over time. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (median age of 71 years, range 51-87) were administrated an extensive neuropsychological testing battery prior to ADT initiation, with 21 (65%) completing post-treatment evaluations 6 months later. At baseline, 45% scored>1.5 standard deviations below the mean on>or = 2 neuropsychological measures. Using standardized inferential statistics, no change in cognition was documented following treatment. The Reliable Change Index revealed that, on a case-by-case basis, 38% demonstrated a decline in measures of executive functioning and 48% showed improvement on measures of visuospatial abilities. Within exploratory analyses, patients who scored below expectation at baseline displayed no change in cognition, while patients with average or better scores at baseline displayed improvements in visuospatial planning and timed tests of phonemic fluency. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of lower than expected cognitive performance among a sample of patients just starting ADT for prostate cancer. Assessment of baseline cognitive function should be taken into account for future research and to inform clinical management.neurodoc
The cognitive measure used was the modified MMSE 3M
The anterior parahippocampal cortex (perirhinal cortex, Brodmann areas 35 and 36) is activated by familiarity, while the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal cortex mediate recollection.49 Perirhinal cortex stimulation evokes déjà vu and déjà vécu (already experienced).50 Further, the right hemisphere dominates in familiarity decisions14,48; déjà vu is more common with right than left temporal lobe seizures or stimulation.48,51 Lesions that destroy or isolate stimuli from right perirhinal cortex may lead to loss of familiarity (e.g., Capgras syndrome) while hyperfamiliarity (i.e., misidentifying strange people as familiar [Fregoli syndrome]) may result from overactivity in right perirhinal cortex from stimulation or disinhibition. Two cases of nondelusional hyperfamiliarity for faces resulted from left-sided lesions (lateral temporal-occipital and anterior cingulate),52,53 possibly disinhibiting right hemisphere areas that imbue faces or places with familiarity.
Methods: Eighty-three patients with asymptomatic severe unilateral internal carotid stenosis were included. A neuropsychological investigation including Verbal Fluency using phonemic and category access, Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Complex Figure Test Copy was performed. Each patient underwent an assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography using the breath-holding index (BHI). Thirty healthy subjects comparable for demographic characteristics and vascular risk profile served as controls. Subjects with carotid stenosis were classified into two groups: preserved CVR (BHI 0.69), 48 patients (25 with left and 23 with right stenosis); and impaired CVR (BHI <0.69), 35 patients (19 with left and 16 with right stenosis).
Results: Subjects with left stenosis and reduced CVR had significantly lower performances at phonemic verbal fluency with respect to controls and the other groups of stenosis. In subjects with right stenosis and reduced CVR, scores obtained in Coloured Progressive Matrices and in Complex Figure Test Copy were significantly lower with respect to the other groups.
Conclusions: These results suggest that an alteration of cerebrovascular reactivity may be responsible for reduction in some cognitive abilities involving the function of the hemisphere ipsilateral to carotid stenosis. Such findings may be of interest for providing a more comprehensive indication to surgical treatment in subgroups of subjects with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.